1 Definitions
2 Perspectives
3 Guidelines
4 Hunger Strikes

Back to chapters
Hunger strike


Internet resources for Prison Doctors

World Medical Association [web link]

World Medical Association 1991 Declaration on Hunger Strikers (Malta Declaration)

World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975. Guidelines for Medical Doctors Concerning Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in Relation to Detention and Imprisonment

"Health and Human Rights in Prisons" Chapter 2 HIV in Prisons, WHO-Europe 2001

Health Care services in Prisons Council of Europe CPT, 1999 (in English)

Medical World vol.52 June 2006 173rd WMA Council Meeting

Health Law, Ethics, and Human Rights Hunger Strikes at Guantanamo — Medical Ethics and Human Rights in a “Legal Black Hole” [George J. Annas ]

Human Rights outlaws: Nuremberg, Geneva, and the Global War on Terror 
[George J. Annas]

Virtual Mentor: Force-Feeding and Coercion 
American Medical Association Journal of Ethics October 2007, Volume 9, Number 10: 703-708. [Hernán Reyes]

Hunger Strikes, Force-feeding, and Physicians’ Responsibilities 
[Sondra S. Crosby, Caroline M. Apovian, Michael A. Grodin]

World Medical Association Declaration on Hunger Strikers 
Adopted by the 43rd World Medical Assembly Malta, November 1991 and editorially revised at the 44th World Medical Assembly Marbella, Spain, September 1992 and revised by the WMA General Assembly, Pilanesberg, South Africa, October 2006

Hunger Strikes and Torture Luebeck
Medical and Ethical Aspects of Hunger Strikes in Custody and the Issue of Torture Extract from "Maltreatment and Torture" [Hernan Reyes]

Other resources

Peel M. Hunger Strikes: Understanding the underlying physiology will help doctors provide proper advice. BMJ 1997; 315: 829-30.

Kalk, WJ, Felix M, Snoey ER, Veriawa Y. Voluntary total fasting in political prisoners - clinical and biochemical observations. S Afr Med J 1993; 83